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riginated from a low pressure system that formed under the influence of an upper-air cyclonic circulation in the Andaman Sea on October 6. Hudhud intensified into a cyclonic storm on October 8 and as a Severe Cyclonic Storm on October 9. Hudhud underwent rapid deepening in the following days and was classified as a Very Severe Cyclonic Storm by the IMD. Shortly before landfall near Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, on October 12, Hudhud reached its peak strength with three minute wind speeds of 175 km/h (109 mph) and a minimum central pressure of 960 mbar (28.35 inHg). The system then drifted northwards towards Uttar Pradesh and Nepal, causing widespread rains in both areas and heavy snowfall in the latter.[3][4]

Hudhud caused extensive damage to the city of Visakhapatnam and the neighbouring districts of Vizianagaram and Srikakulam of Andhra Pradesh. Damages were estimated to be ₹21908 crore (US$3.4 billion) by the Andhra state government.[5] At least 124 deaths have been confirmed, a majority of them from Andhra Pradesh and Nepal, with the latter experiencing an avalanche due to the cyclone.

Contents [hide]
1 Meteorological history
2 Preparations and impact
2.1 India
2.1.1 Andaman and Nicobar Islands
2.1.2 Andhra Pradesh
2.1.3 Odisha
2.1.4 Relief fund
2.2 Nepal
3 See also
4 Notes
5 References
6 External links
Meteorological history[edit]

Storm track
Under the influence of an upper-air cyclonic circulation,a low-pressure area formed over the Andaman Sea on October 6.[6] It slowly consolidated and was upgraded to a depression by the India Meteorological Department (IMD) on October 7. While over open waters, the depression continued to encounter a favorable environment, and a tropical cyclone formation alert (TCFA) was issued by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), followed by IMD upgrading the storm into a deep depression.[7][8]

In the early hours of October 8, the JTWC started issuing its advisories for the system as it recorded tropical storm winds at the storm's centre.[9] The IMD later reported that the deep depression made its first landfall over Long Island, Andaman, and had reached cyclonic storm intensity, naming it Hudhud.[10] After entering the Bay of Bengal, Hudhud continued to intensify the following day, and was upgraded to a severe cyclonic storm.

An animation showing Hudhud developing an eye on October 11
Early on October 10, the JTWC classified the storm as a Category 1 tropical cyclone after it formed a microwave eye feature and was located in an environment favorable for further intensification with moderate wind shear.[11] The IMD upgraded Hudhud to a very severe cyclonic storm later the same day, and the JTWC further upgraded the storm to a Category 2 tropical cyclone.[12]

On October 11, Hudhud underwent rapid intensification and developed an eye at its center. In the following hours, the storm reached its peak intensity with a minimum central pressure of 950 mbar (28.05 inHg) and three-minute average windspeeds of 185 km/h (115 mph). Maintaining intensity, it made landfall over Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh at noon of October 12, near 17.7°N 83.3°E. The maximum wind gust recorded by the High Wind Speed Recorder (HWSR) instrument of the Cyclone Warning Center in Visakhapatnam was 260 km/h (160 mph). Measured by the Doppler weather radar stationed in the city, the storm's eye was 66 km (41 mi) in diameter. The strength of the winds disrupted telecommunication lines and damaged the Doppler radar, inhibiting further observations.[13]

Bringing extensive damage to the coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh, Hudhud gradually weakened as it curved northwards over land. The storm continued its weakening trend and was last noted as a well-marked low pressure area over east Uttar Pradesh on October 14.[3]

Preparations and impact[edit]

Hudhud traversing the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
In light of the storm, the National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) mobilized 35 teams in Andhra Pradesh and Odisha.[14] The East Coast Railway cancelled 38 trains on October 12 when the cyclone made landfall.[15][16]

Andaman and Nicobar Islands[edit]
On October 8, while Hudhud was gaining cyclonic storm intensity, the authorities closed schools and cancelled ferry services in and around the Andaman Islands. Fishermen were warned about the storm. The Andaman Trunk Road, one of the major roads traversing the island, was shut down after trees were uprooted due to the storm's force. Landslides were reported on the island, causing some power and communication lines to fail.[17]

Andhra Pradesh[edit]

Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi (rightmost) inspects the extent of damage along with Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister Chandrababu Naidu
An alert was sounded in nine out of thirteen districts of Andhra Pradesh where standing crops including paddy, groundnut, sugarcane, and pulses were yet to be harvested. Over 700,000 people, including 500,000 people in Andhra Pradesh, were evacuated and put up in relief camps. The local government made arrangements to shift half a million people in all.[18][19]

A blown away bridge near Visakhapatnam
Hudhud crossed the coast of Andhra Pradesh at the noon of October 12 over Visakhapatnam,[20] with winds exceeding 185 km/h (115 mph). As per initial reports, 3 people were killed due to heavy rainfall accompanied by strong winds in coastal areas.[21] Within hours of hitting the coast, the cyclone severed the radar link of Visakhapatnam Cyclone Warning Centre.[22]

Hudhud caused 61 deaths within Andhra Pradesh and an estimated damage of ₹21908 crore (US$3.4 billion).[5] This makes Hudhud the most destructive cyclone to ever hit India and the second most destructive in the basin after Cyclone Nargis in 2008.[citation needed]

Roadway destruction in Visakhapatnam
Visakhapatnam, also known as Vizag, bore the brunt of Hudhud, which hit its coast with a speed of 185 km/h (115 mph). Hundreds of vehicles parked on roads were damaged while heavy rains inundated

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